Evaluate Solution Services Company Location Delhi, IN
Skills: Business Development Manager ,Business Development Executive
Role: Business Development Manager,Business Development Executive
Experience: 5-9 Years
Company Name MaxCure Hospitals
Seniority Level :Director
Marketing and Advertising
Public Relations and Communications
Note: preferable only pharma industry experience
Devise short and long term strategies aiming to build brand identity & budgets.
Continuously work towards creation of brand awareness by partnering with various advertisement and PR agencies for creative inputs-website development and up gradation.
Ensure external & internal communications focus on creating positive impact of the brand. Ensure required brand guidelines are adhered by maintaining uniform look-and-feel.
Manage the various events for brand promotion activities for enhanced brand recall value.
Initiate web-based marketing platforms and create strong brand positioning.
Liaison with media and creative agencies for brand promotion activities for placing advertisements in various media including hoardings.
Liaison with public relations firm for positioning the articles in the print and digital media.
Interaction with various publications to promote break through surgeries, publicize achievements in leading dailies and electronic media.
Analyse the monthly media visibility report and present the same to the management team for developing the action plan.
Responsible for Content Management of various marketing communication material such as advertisements, brochures, leaflets, banners etc.
Responsible for design, development, content management, display of promotional packages and ensuring the continuous up-dation of the website with current information.
Responsible for designing of event related posters, brochures, invites, banners etc. by coordinating with the outsourced team.
Establishing tie up with Medical Tourism facilitators and International Insurance companies.
Identification of potential referral points to generate international business opportunities for Mediciti.
Participation in Medical Tourism Conferences held at various domestic and International locations.
Work with the management and marketing team to decide, plan, strategize, priorities and publicize the unit/departments strengths, features, unique specialties, achievements etc and thereby promote business development.
Will be responsible for the marketing related activities in coordination with the respective operation leaders for revenue generation through promotional activities for assigned departments.
Calculate Marketing Return on Investment (MROI) to optimize use of resources.
Conduct Market Intelligence Studies to benchmark and review strategies & Plans of Mediciti.
Develop and manage sales and marketing budgets.
Ensure the maximum benefit is attained towards running various campaigns vis-a-vis cost incurred.
Develop and implement sales processes and tools to measure and optimize the effectiveness of the sales force.
Oversee the development and management of internal operating budgets.
Provide guidance to the deportees to enhance business through Corporate tie ups and Sponsorships.
Introduce promotional/ Below the Line (BTL) activities to maximize the responses like-running Residential Welfare Association campaigns.
Monitor consumer behavior and market trends through market research activities and take appropriate action for the same.
About MaxCure Hospitals
Hospital & Health Care
With a legacy of excellence in multi super specialty healthcare, MaxCure Hospitals now extends its services to Hi-tech City & Secretariat. Presenting MaxCure Hospitals, a first-of-its-kind chain of hospitals that brings uniform expertise in all areas of medicine under one roof with a multi-disciplinary approach, unmatched care and support. Maxcure Hospitals Group has in total 6 units in the states of Telangana & Andhra Pradesh. The units are spread across twin cities along with one unit in Nellore.
Health today is a growing concern for India. Long working hours, offshore timings, high-pressure deadlines, unpredictable work flow, endless jet lags among other things, are leading to stress and anxiety among the working class. Lifestyle diseases are on a prowl in India. This may be due to people’s negligence, the overall work ethic of the corporate world, sedentary lifestyle scenario at home or unhealthy eating habits.
In order to counter the lifestyle disease menace, it is essential to undergo regular and periodic health checkups. Due to lack of proper preventive care, there has been a steep rise in premature deaths. While Diabetes has become a common phenomenon, heart ailments too, are on the rise. However, on the flip side, all these diseases are preventable and can be controlled with lifestyle adjustments, diet restrictions, timely medication and periodic health checks.
MaxCure Hospitals has the distinction of bringing together renowned names in all the areas of medicine under a single umbrella, so that patients don’t have to travel from one hospital to another chasing specialist doctors in various medical disciplines. Conveniently located in the heart of the IT corridor. MaxCure Hospitals is a 1500-bed strong, rapidly growing group of hospitals. The group encompasses 9 hospitals spread across Hyderabad, Nellore, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Vizag and Kurnool.
Monday, April 15, 2019 10:19
The Department of Tourism and the Department of Health in Ho Chi Minh City jointly organized a program named “Introducing medical tourism products in the dental and traditional medicine field” yesterday to enhance potential development opportunities in the medical tourism field.
The program aims to create new diversified tourism products with the orientation towards medicine and tourism combination. Moreover, the program wants to increase information of medical tourism system in the city.
Deputy Director of the Traditional Medicine Institutions in HCMC Dr. Truong Thi Ngoc Lan said in 2018, the Department of Health started to build medical tourism program because more and more Vietnamese people living abroad have come back the country to undergo dental treatment and cosmetic surgeries for the lower cost of these services.
Subsequently, the Department of Health organized the program to link tourism and medicine to introduce reliable medical facilities and dental rooms. Over one year, the Department has listed trusted medical units where lists of service prices are publicized to help visitors choose the most suitable one for their financial ability, said Dr. Lan.
Across the country, more people are dying from drug overdoses than car accidents. We read about their deaths daily in the news—lives young and old snuffed out. Young people are at high risk because of their unpredictable behavior. And when we look at the broader pattern of misuse of alcohol and drugs, we learn that a majority of the adults who are addicted to drugs and alcohol started down that path as a youth.
To break this cycle and help more young people stay healthy, Community Instigator is joining with consumer advocates nationwide in a three-year project to make alcohol and drug prevention and counseling more widely available to youth. It just takes a short conversation with young people to identify whether they're using drugs and alcohol, but, unfortunately, this is not a common practice in doctor's offices, schools, or in other places that young people gather.
The project, focused on youth ages fifteen to twenty-two, uses consumer-led advocacy to promote a cost-effective, public health approach called Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT). SBIRT is a set of tools that helps identify alcohol and drug problems and guides intervention if a problem exists. It also supports youth who are not misusing substances by providing pep talks to encourage them to keep refraining.
The project is supported by a $2.5 million grant from the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, which will be matched by $1.7 million from other sources. The Hilton Foundation sees consumer advocacy as a critical part of its $10-million-a-year Youth Substance Use Prevention and Early Intervention initiative, which aims to ensure that at least 30 percent of U.S. youth have access to SBIRT, to increase the number of pediatricians and other youth workers trained to conduct SBIRT by 30,000, and to strengthen the evidence and encourage learning to improve delivery of prevention and early intervention services through SBIRT. The Hilton Foundation is also partnering with national medical associations, medical educators, youth organizations, and research institutes to increase knowledge about SBIRT.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening is called Ductus Arteriosus, is a normal part of a baby's circulatory system before birth that usually closes shortly after birth. when the baby is still in the mother’s womb, they didn’t require lungs to supply oxygen because they receive oxygen from their mother. Hence there is no need for the heart to pump blood to the lungs. The Ductus Arteriosus is present in all babies while still in the womb, and it allows blood to bypass the lungs.
In most babies who have normal heart, PDA will shrink and close by its own. the ductus arteriosus usually closes within the first hours of life. sometimes, the Ductus Arteriosus does not close on its own. This is known as a Patent Ductus Arteriosus. Mostly this condition is seen in premature babies,sometimes it has also appeared in full-term babies. Small PDA that doesn't close early will seal up on their own by the time the child is a year old. If PDA stays open for longer, then the extra blood will flow to the lungs.
Signs & Symptoms of Patent Ductus Arteriosus
the PDA symptoms vary with the size of the defect and whether the baby is full term or premature. A small PDA might cause no signs or symptoms and left undetected for some time. A large PDA shows signs of heart failure as soon after birth.
Dr. Suresh Rao from Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital says” the basic symptoms of heart problems are: a child may require ventilation, a child may not gain weight, they get record Respiratory infection”.
A large PDA found during childhood might cause:
Symptoms of PDA
Causes of Patent Ductus Arteriosus
It is a congenital heart defect, means the problem early in the heart's development. The cause of PDA is unknown, but genetics might play a role. PDA is common among premature babies. the connection often takes longer to close. If the connection remains open, it's referred to as a patent ductus arteriosus.
Risk Factor of Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Family history and other genetic conditions:
If you have a family history of heart defect or another genetic condition such as Down syndrome, it increases the risk of having PDA.
1. Premature birth: PDA occurs in premature babies who are born too early than in babies who are born full term
2. Rubella infection during pregnancy: If the mother gets contract Rubella virus during pregnancy. your baby's risk of heart defects increases.
3. Being born at a high altitude: Babies born above 10,000 feet have a greater risk of a PDA than babies born at lower altitudes.
4. Being female: PDA is twice common in girls.
Small PDA might not cause complications. Larger, untreated defects could cause serious problems:
1. High blood pressure in the lungs: Too much blood circulating through the heart's main arteries through a PDA can lead to pulmonary hypertension.
2. Heart Failure: PDA eventually cause the heart to enlarge and weaken, leading to heart failure
3. Heart infection: People who have PDA are at a higher risk of an inflammation of the heart's inner lining than are people who have healthy hearts.
Treatment for Patent Ductus Arteriosus
The treatment for PDA will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
A small Patent Ductus Arteriosus can close by its own as a child grows. A child showing symptoms will require a medical attendance and possible even a surgical repair. A cardiologist will monitor closely to see whether the PDA is closing on its own. If a PDA does not close on its own, it should be repaired to prevent lung problems. A closure of defect is usually recommended as a high risk of cardiac complications and early death related to PDA.
1. Wait and Watch:
Many times, in a premature baby, PDA close on its own. Your cardiologist will monitor a baby's heart closely to make sure the open blood vessel is closing properly. For children who have small PDA that aren't causing other health problems, only monitoring might be needed.
In premature infant anti inflammations drugs such as indomethacin or ibuprofen (Advil, Infant's Motrin) might be used to close the PDA. Indomethacin is related to aspirin and ibuprofen and works by stimulating the muscles inside the PDA to constrict, thereby closing the connection.
3. Surgical closure:
If the medication is not effective and a child's condition is causing complications, surgery might be recommended. Open heart surgery is a standard surgical procedure. In this procedure, the surgeon opens the child's ribs to reach its heart and repair the open duct using stitches or clips. After a surgery child remains in the hospital for several days. It will take a few weeks to a child to fully recover from the surgery.
4. Catheter Procedures:
Nowadays, more than 95 percent of PDAs can now be closed by catheter-based techniques. Premature babies are too small for Catheter procedure. However, if a baby doesn't have PDA related health issues then a doctor may recommend waiting until the baby is older to repair catheter procedure to correct the PDA.
In this procedure, a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin and threaded up to the heart. Through the catheter, a plug is inserted to close the ductus arteriosus.
There is no sure way to prevent having a baby with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), however, it is important to do everything possible to have a healthy pregnancy.
1. Seek early prenatal care: Reduce stress, quit smoking, stop taking birth control pills.
2. Eat healthy Diet: Eat a proper diet, as recommend by your physician, include a vitamin supplement that contains folic acid.
3. Exercise regularly: Consult your doctor and work on your work out plan that’s right for you.
4. Avoid risk: These include harmful substances such as alcohol, cigarettes and illegal drugs.
5. Keep diabetes under control: work with your doctor to manage the condition before and during pregnancy.
6. Avoid infections: Update your vaccinations before becoming pregnant. certain infections can be harmful to a developing baby.
Hair transplant is a surgical procedure in which surgeons move hair to an area where is no hair or thin hair. Usually, surgeon moves hair from the back or side of the head where dense and good quality of hair are present to bald area, i.e. front or top area of the head.
Candidates for hair transplant
Hair transplantation can help to improve one’s appearance and self confidence. The person who can receive hair transplant are-
Hair transplant cannot benefit people in case-
Causes of hair loss
There are many reasons for the loss of hair in humans. Permanent baldness is the major cause of hair loss in men due to genetic factors. The other reasons for hair loss are below:
There are basically two types of hair transplants procedures performed by surgeons. It depends on the need of coverage on the scalp. Its types include-
Surgeon starts the procedure of hair transplant by cleaning the scalp. He uses a small needle to give local anesthesia in order to numb the bald area of the head. He can use two main techniques namely FUT (Follicular Unit Transplantation) and FUE (Follicular Unit Extraction).
Follicular unit transplantation or strip method-
Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE)
Both the process may take 4-8 hours. The stitches are removed in 10 days following the surgery. The patient may require three to four sessions to have the desired dense of hair on the head. Gaps are maintained between the sessions for proper healing of the transplants. Pain medicines, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medicines are prescribed to avoid pain, infection and inflammation after the surgery.
Most people return in few days after the surgery. Normally, grated hairs fall down in two to three weeks after the surgery making way for the new hair to grow. New hair may appear in 8-12 months after the surgery. Most people experience 60 % of hair growth in6 to 9 months. In some cases, hair growth medicines such as minoxidil (Rogaine) or Finasteride are given to have better results.
Risks and Side effects/complications
The side effects for hair transplantation are not intense and go in few weeks. These include bleeding, infection, swelling in the scalp, bruising around the eyes, crust on the scalp, numbness or lack of sensation, itching or numbness on the transplanted areas.
the new hair continue to grow on the transplanted areas of the scalp. Its density depends on the laxity or looseness of the scalp, hair quality, hair curl and density of the follicles.
Knee Replacement Surgery
Knee replacement surgery or knee arthroplasty (ARTH-row-plas-tee) is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pain and restore function in severely diseased knee joints. A number of knee replacement prostheses and surgical techniques are available for orthopedic surgeons in the medical world. The selection of perfect surgical procedure depends on the age, weight, size, and shape of the affected knee, activity level, and overall health of the patient.
An orthopedic surgeon assesses the range of motion, stability, and strength of the affected knees. He asks the patient to perform X-rays to know the extent of the damage. After which right surgical technique is selected. The procedure usually involves cutting or incision of the damaged bone and cartilage from the thighbone, shinbone joining at the knee and kneecap, which is then replaced with an artificial joint (prosthesis). It is prepared from metal alloys, polymers, and high-grade plastics.
There are three types of surgery-
1. Partial knee replacement surgery- In this procedure, only the part of the damaged or arthritic knee is removed or replaced. It has an advantage that it requires a smaller cut resulting in less bone, less blood loss, and less pain during recovery than other procedures.
2. Bilateral knee replacement surgery- In this procedure, the replacement of both of the knees is done at the same time. An advantage of bilateral knee replacement is that this procedure and recovery process happens once if both the knees are affected. However, recovery takes a longer time, and much more assistance is required during healing.
3. Total knee replacement surgery-During this procedure, a surgeon removes some bone and cartilage from the areas of the thighbone (femur) and shinbone, at the knee joint and replaces the knee area of the femur with a metal implant and the knee area of the shinbone with a plastic implant.
Candidates for Knee Replacement surgery
The potential candidates of knee replacement surgery are who have following ailments –
1. Severe pain caused by osteoarthritis.
2. Problems related to climbing stairs, walking and getting in and out of chairs.
3. Knee pain even at rest
4. Failure of other medical treatments
Knee replacement surgery is done under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia to make the patient unconscious. The patient is given an intravenous antibiotic before, during, and after the procedure to prevent infection after surgery.
During this procedure, the affected knee is bent, and a cut of 6-10 inches long is made on it. The damaged joint surfaces are cut and removed. Then, the parts of the artificial joint are attached to the joint surfaces. The surgical area is then bent and rotated to ensure the proper function of the joint. It is then closed, and the whole procedure may take two hours to complete.
After the surgery, the patient may have to stay in the hospital for a few days. Painkillers and anti-inflammatory medicines are prescribed to control pain and inflammation. The patient is advised to exercise under the supervision of a physiotherapist and gradually intensified to achieve the full range of motion of the knees.
Most patients recover in three to six weeks after this surgery. The patient can resume his most daily activities, such as shopping and light housekeeping in this period. They can continue driving around three weeks. Most knee replacements remain functional up to 15 years or more.
Knee replacement relieves dramatic pain for more than 90 percent of patients with the best outcomes. It boasts one's activity level as it allows the affected person to participate in everyday physical activities such as walking, swimming, bicycling, and other activities that he used to do before the knee ailments.
Knee replacement surgery has the following risks:
• Blood clots in the leg vein or lungs
• Nerve damage
• Heart attack
Breast cancer is the most common cancer that affects women. It is the second leading cause of death in women due to cancer after lung cancer. General awareness of the symptoms and regular screening can help in reducing the risk. In rare cases, breast cancer can also affect men.
Due to increasing awareness and research findings, the diagnostic and treatment methods for breast cancer has advanced a lot. It has reduced the incidences of death related to the disease. It has increased the survival rates due to early detection, personalized approach, and better evaluation of the case.
Initially, breast cancer develops as-
• A thick area of tissues in the breast
• A lump in the breast
• A lump in the armpit.
Other symptoms include:
• Pain felt in the armpits or breast that remain constant with no relief during menses
• Redness of the skin of the breast
• A rash on or around one of the nipples
• Discharge of blood from the nipples
• Inversion of the nipple
• An alteration in the size or shape of the breast
• Peeling, flaking, or scaling of the skin around the nipple or whole breast
However, most breast lumps are not cancerous. If you feel a lump in the breast, then breast examination by an expert physician may help to rule out the chances of breast cancer.
1. Age- the chances of developing breast cancer increase with an increase in age. Its cases are highly reported in old age by 70 years.
2. Genetics- According to current guidelines, women with a family history of breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer and who have a history of breast cancer related to BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations are more likely to develop cancer.
3. A history of breast cancer or breast lumps- Women who have the medical history of previous breast cancer or non-cancerous breast lump are more likely to develop breast cancer than those who have no such history.
4. Dense breast tissue- Women having more dense breasts are more likely to contract breast cancer.
5. Estrogen exposure and breastfeeding- women who have extended exposure to estrogen are more at risk of breast cancer, such as menarche or menopause or breastfeeding.
6. Bodyweight- obese women, usually after menopause, have a higher chance of developing breast cancer, probably due to increased estrogen levels and high sugar intake.
7. Alcohol consumption- A higher consumption of alcohol is at higher risk of breast cancer development than light drinkers.
8. Radiation exposure-Undergoing radiation treatment for different cancer may increase the risk of developing breast cancer.
9. Hormone treatments- According to the NCI, oral contraceptives may elevate the risk of breast cancer. According to the studies conducted by ACS, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), particularly estrogen-progesterone therapy (EPT), is associated with a raised risk of breast cancer.
Breast cancer is diagnosed by the following methods-
1. Breast exam-The doctor will physically examine the breasts for lumps and other symptoms in different positions, such as above their head or by their sides.
2. Imaging tests-Several tests are needed to detect breast cancer-
• Mammogram- It is an X-ray test used to produce images to find out any lumps or abnormalities.
• Ultrasound- It utilizes sound waves to differentiate between a solid mass and a fluid-filled cyst.
• MRI: it is helpful to study the images of the breast to identify cancer or other abnormalities. It is often combined with ultrasound and mammograms as a screening tool for those who have a higher risk of breast cancer.
3. Biopsy- In this test, a sample of tissue is extracted from the breast and sends it for laboratory analysis.
The main treatment options include:
1. Radiation therapy- In this therapy, high-powered beams of energy, such as X-rays and protons, are utilized to destroy cancer cells.
2. Surgery- the cancer cells are removed by Lumpectomy, Mastectomy, Sentinel node biopsy, and total mastectomy by a plastic surgeon
3. Biological therapy, or targeted drug therapy- Targeted drug treatments are used to attack specific abnormalities within cancer cells.
4. Hormone therapy- it is also termed as hormone-blocking therapy, used to treat breast cancers, sensitive to hormones. It is also used before or after surgery or other cancer treatments to reduce the chance of relapse of disease.
5. Chemotherapy-It is sometimes given before surgery to treat larger breast tumors to shrink a tumor to a size. It is also used in cases of cancer in which has already spread to other parts of the body.
6. Immunotherapy - Immunotherapy uses your immune system to fight cancer. For triple-negative breast cancer, it is combined with chemotherapy to treat advanced cancer that's spread to other parts of the body.
Melanoma is a cancer of melanocytes present in the skin that produces the pigment melanin. Most melanomas appear on the skin, but it may also develop in almost any organ of the body, including the eye, brain, and lymph nodes. It is a type of skin cancer that can spread to other organs in the body. It rarely appears in internal organs, such as intestines. It is more serious forms of skin cancer because it tends to spread to other organs of the body that may lead to serious illness and even death.
The most common forms of melanoma involve-
The stages of Melanoma depend on the thickness, ulceration, lymph node involvement, and the presence of distant metastasis.
The typical sign of melanoma is the presence of a new mole or a change in an existing mole that can appear anywhere on the body. Its commonest site is back in males and the legs in females. It rarely appears in sun-protected areas such as the buttocks and the scalp. In most cases, its characteristic features can be understood by following ABCDE criteria-
DNA damage in the skin cells causes out of control growth of these cells. It can eventually grow to form a mass of cancerous cells.
Other causes of melanomas are-
Factors that may increase the risk of melanoma are
In most cases, melanoma is diagnosed with the help of the biopsy. In this procedure, the suspicious mole is removed and is studied in the laboratory to examine its cancerous nature under a microscope.
Another test is recommended when there is doubt that melanoma is spread to the lymph nodes. It is called a sentinel node biopsy.
The primary treatment for melanoma is the surgical excision of the mole. But it depends depend on age, shape & size, the stage during diagnosis and extent of its spread. If it is detected in the early stage, it is treated successfully with surgery. If it has spread to lymph nodes, then surgical removal of nearby lymph nodes is recommended.
If melanoma is diagnosed after it has progressed to an advanced stage, then treatment is focused on slowing down the spread of cancer and reduce symptoms. More in-depth and more advanced cancers may require more extensive surgery to get treated.
The treatment focuses on the reduction of symptoms, usually involves medicines that target specific genetic alterations in melanoma, like BRAF inhibitors, etc. Medicines are selected that can boost the immune responses of the body to the cancerous growths (so-called checkpoint therapies). Some treatments using immunotherapy or chemotherapy are often selected.
Eye cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that develops due to the uncontrolled multiplication of the cells in or around the eyeball. This cancer tends to grow in the tissues surrounding the eyeball or had spread to the eye from distant parts of the body, like breasts or the lungs.
• Eye melanoma
• Squamous cell carcinoma
• Retinoblastoma – a childhood cancer
If the cancerous growth begins inside the eyeball, it's called intraocular cancer. The most common eye cancer is melanoma. Hence, it is discussed more in this article.
Retinoblastoma is the most common eye cancer that affects children, which originates from the cells of the retina. In adults, the common eye cancer is melanoma and lymphoma.
Symptoms of eye cancer include:
• The patient sees shadows, flashes of light, or wiggly lines
• He may have blurred vision
• He may feel a dark patch in the eye that grows bigger in size
• There is a partial or complete loss of vision
• Another symptom is bulging of one of the eyes
• A lump is felt in the eyelid or in the eye that increases in size
• Rarely, pain may be felt in or around the eye
The exact cause is not clearly understood.
• Age.-People of age 50 or more are more at risk of developing primary intraocular melanoma. It is rarely seen in children and people over age 70.
• Race- Primary intraocular melanoma affects white or fair-skinned people more than black people.
• Gender-Intraocular melanoma affects both men and women.
• Individual history-People with the following medical conditions have a higher risk of developing primary intraocular melanoma:
• Family history- melanoma can run in families, due to a mutation or change in a gene called BAP1.
• Other factors- Exposure to sunlight or tanning beds or certain chemicals may trigger intraocular melanoma.
The tests that can detect eye cancer are following-
1. Eye Exam- the eye specialists examine the structures of the eyes in more detail and check for abnormalities
2. Ultrasound scan- a small probe is used to find out more about the position of the tumor and its size. It is kept on the closed eye and uses high-frequency sound waves are passed to develop an image of the internal parts of the eye.
3. Fluorescein angiogram- a special camera is used to take pictures of suspected tumor after injecting a dye into the blood vessels of eyes to highlight the tumor
4. Biopsy- in rare cases, a small sample of tissue is removed from the tumor of eye tissues.
The treatment of eye cancer is dependent on the size and exact location of the tumor. The main treatments of eye melanoma are-
• Brachytherapy – tiny plates lined with a radioactive material called plaques are inserted near the tumor and kept in place for up to a week to kill the cancerous cells
• External radiotherapy – in this technique, beams of radiation are focussed on the tumor to destroy the cancerous cells
• Surgery- it is selected when the eye has some scope of vision. In this procedure, the tumor or part of the eye is removed.
• Removal of the eye (enucleation) – this may be necessary if the tumor is too large or the patient has lost vision; the eye will eventually be replaced with an artificial eye that matches your other eye
• Chemotherapy- It is rarely recommended for eye melanoma, but it can be used for different types of eye cancer.
The outlook of the eye cancer depends on the size of the tumor, its time of diagnosis and parts of the eye affected
• Nearly 80% of patients diagnosed with a small eye melanoma will survive up to minimum five years after detection
• Almost 70% of the patients diagnosed with a medium-sized eye melanoma will survive up to minimum five years after detection
• Nearly 50% of the patients diagnosed with a large eye melanoma will survive up to minimum five years after detection
Neurological cancer is the abnormal and uncontrollable growth of cells in the brain or spine. Sometimes, it develops in both areas of the body at the same time. Brain cancer appears when the cells inside the brain reproduce uncontrollably, forming a mass. This mass is also known as a tumor. It is categorized into three types-
• Noncancerous (low grade, benign)- Benign tumors are limited to the affected area, but they can still cause neurological cancer symptoms, especially if they grow to be quite large.
• Cancerous (high grade, malignant) -Malignant neurological tumors can invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of your brain.
• Metastatic cancers- this cancer has developed in some other part of the body and has invaded the brain or spine to form tumors.
In children, brain and spine cancer appear before the age of 10 years. In adults, it usually occurs in the ages between 30 and 50 years.
The Symptoms of Neurological cancer vary from person to person. Brain Cancer represents the following common symptoms:
• Seizures or convulsions
• Problems related to speech or vision
• Nausea and vomiting
• Difficulty in walking
• Alterations in one’s alertness, memory or concentration
• Changes in personality
Spinal Cord Tumors are represented by symptoms such as-
1. Pain in the back
2. Pain that extends from the back to the arms or legs
3. Weakness felt in the legs
4. Trouble in walking
5. Bowel or urinary incontinence
The tests that can help to diagnose the neuro cancer are-
1. Neuropsychological exam: neurological evaluations help to assess memory, learning, concentration, attention, verbal comprehension, visual perception, processing speed, basic motor, and sensory functions, reasoning, etc.
2. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): MRI scan utilizes a strong magnetic field and radio waves to develop a clear image of soft tissues in the brain and spine.
3. 3T MRI: This high-tech MRI scanner gives detailed scans of the brain and spine with accuracy.
4. Open MRI: in this test, the neurologist treats the tumors during the scan, like performing a real-time neurological tumor biopsy during the MRI.
5. Functional MRI: A functional MRI (fMRI) is the diagnostic test that accurately maps the brain. Accurate mapping is necessary to plan surgery, radiation therapy, and other interventional treatments as brain tumors may shift the locations of the centers responsible for memory, speech, sensation, and other functions.
6. 16-slice CT (computed tomography): A 16-slice CT shows precise cross-sectional images of the brain than a conventional CT.
7. PET/CT: These scans give anatomical data by a CT scan along with the metabolic information from a PET scan that tracks smaller tumors and the extent of brain cancer.
One or more of the following procedures are advised for neuro cancer:
1. Surgery: In some cases, Neuro tumors can be removed surgically. However, surgery is many times are performed in combination with chemotherapy, radiation, or immunotherapy.
2. Radiation therapy: it is used to destroy cancer cells or cease them from growing.
3. Chemotherapy: These medicines are used to fight cancer, usually in combination with other therapies, such as radiation therapy and surgery.
4. Autologous stem cell treatment (ASCT): Autologous stem cell treatment (ASCT): The word “Autologous” means that the stem cells are derived from the patient before performing chemo/radiation therapy. This procedure is used to rebuild the bone marrow after an extremely high dose of chemo, as it might have destroyed healthy stem cells (immature blood cells) along with brain cancer cells.
5. Cancer immunotherapy: The immune system of the body can be used to treat cancer without damage to healthy tissue. Cellular cancer vaccines, prepared from the patient's healthy cells, help to trigger his immune system to fight cancer and prohibit it from spreading, that eventually prevent returning of the tumor.
6. Rehabilitation therapy: It includes
• Physical therapy to help the patient restart walking, maintain balance and rebuild strength
• Occupational therapy to perform life skills, such as dressing, drinking, eating and going to the bathroom
• Speech therapy to deal with difficulties related to talking and swallowing.
A lung transplant is a surgical operation performed to remove and replace a diseased or poorly functional lung with a healthy human lung from a donor.
A donor is usually a person whose lung is transplanted. He is a generally recently died person with functional lungs. In rare cases, a section of the lung is taken from a living donor for lung transplantation.
A lung transplant is recommended for those people whose lung is severely damaged and cannot perform the normal function, and the affected person cannot live longer enjoy life.
There are three types of lung transplant:
• Single lung transplant – where a single donor lung is used to replace diseased or damaged lungs, then it is termed as a single lung from the recipient and replaced with a lung from the donor, then it is called a single lung transplant. It is considered to treat pulmonary fibrosis, but it's never recommended for people with cystic fibrosis as infection will go from the remaining lung to the donated lung
• Double lung transplant – in this type, both the lungs are removed and replaced with two donated lungs. It is needed in people with cystic fibrosis or COPD.
• Heart-lung transplant – it is a more complicated surgery in which the heart and both lungs are removed, followed by replacement with a donated heart and lungs. It is often recommended to treat severe pulmonary hypertension.
The potential candidates for lung transplantation are those who have
• Advanced lung disease has not responded to other methods of treatment.
• a life expectancy less than 2 to 3 years without a transplant
• chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
• cystic fibrosis
• pulmonary hypertension
• idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
When a perfect matched donor’s lung is available, the patient is taken to the operation theater. This operation takes between 4 and 12 hours to complete, depending on the complexity of the procedure and the condition of the patient. It is performed when the patient is entirely unconscious under general anesthesia. A large incision is made in the chest to reach the lungs. The incision depends on the type of lung transplant:
• An incision on a single side of the chest only (for a single lung transplant)
• An incision across the entire width of the front of the chest, or an incision on either side (for a double lung transplant)
The patient is kept on a heart and lung bypass machine to keep your blood circulating during the operation. It is selected according to the condition of the individual. Then, the surgeon will connect the donated lungs to the relevant airways and blood vessels, and the chest is then closed.
Although lung transplants are risky and complex surgeries, they can have substantial benefits. Depending on the condition and health status of the patient, a lung transplant may increase the life expectancy of the patient. It will improve the quality of life, making breathing comfortable for the recipient. About 5 out of 10 people will have life expectancy for at least five years after a lung transplant. In a few cases, people may survive for at least ten years.
A lung transplant is a complex operation in which the recipient would take at least three months to recover. He may have to remain in the ICU for a few days after the surgery.
Risks or Side Effects-
The side effects of lung transplant include
• Organ rejection when the recipient's body does not accept donated lung and consider it as foreign lungs
• Bleeding and blood clots
• Stomach problems
• Thinning of your bones (osteoporosis)
• Cancer and malignancies due to consumption of immunosuppressants
• Kidney damage
Bariatric surgery is a surgical operation that contributes to losing weight by making alterations in the digestive system. Some types of bariatric surgeries work to lose weight by reducing the size of the stomach, which makes the patient eat and drink at every meal and feel full sooner. Bariatric Surgery includes Gastric bypass and other weight-loss surgeries that effectively make changes in your digestive system to help you lose extra calories.
Obesity can be understood by our body mass index. If one’s body mass index (BMI) exceeds 30 or more, then he is considered obese. BMI is a measure of one's weight-related to his height.
• Class 1obesity indicates a BMI of 30 to 35,
• Class 2 obesity shows a BMI of 35 to 40,
• Class 3 obesity to a BMI of 40 or more.
Classes 2 and 3, are considered as severe obesity, and it becomes hard to treat with diet and exercise alone.
Candidates for Bariatric Surgery
1. If one is overweight (BMI is 40 or more) and when diet and exercise haven't worked.
2. If one has serious health problems, such as type 2 diabetes or sleep apnea, related to obesity. (BMI is above 35 or more)
3. If one has BMI is 30 or more, serious health problem related to gastric band is accompanied by obesity
The obese teenager needs this surgery if he has-
• Severe obesity-related health problems like type 2 diabetes or severe sleep apnea with BMI equal to or above 35
• Less serious health problems like high blood pressure or high cholesterol with BMI equal to or above 40
Potentially life-threatening weight-related health problems includes:
• Heart disease and stroke
• High blood pressure or hypertension
• Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
• Sleep apnea
• Type 2 diabetes
1. Roux-en-Y (roo-en-wy) gastric bypass- It is the most common method of gastric bypass. It cannot be reversible. It reduces the amount of food one can eat in one meal and the absorption of nutrients. In this procedure, the surgeon cuts the upper portion of your stomach, sealing it off from the rest of your stomach, reducing its size. Then, the small intestine is cut and sewn directly onto the pouch to bypass the food directly into its middle part.
2. Sleeve gastrectomy- In this procedure, about 80% of the stomach is removed. A long, tube-like pouch is left to hold less food. It also leads to reduced secretion of the appetite-regulating hormone ghrelin, reducing one’s desire to eat.
3. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch- It has two-parts which the first step involves performing a procedure similar to sleeve gastrectomy, and another one connects the end portion of the intestine to the duodenum near the stomach (duodenal switch and biliopancreatic diversion), bypassing the majority of the pipe.
• It reduces one's appetite and urges to eat much.
• It causes significant long term weight-loss.
• It reduces the absorption of the nutrients.
Hospital stay depends on the type of bariatric surgery performed. Post-surgery, the patient is not allowed to eat for one or two days, and a specific diet plan is given to them to follow for a few weeks. He is advised to switch to a healthy lifestyle to fetch good outcomes of the surgery.
Short term Risks associated with the surgical procedure can include:
• Excessive bleeding
• Adverse reactions to anesthesia
• Blood clots
• Breathing problems
• Leakage in your gastrointestinal system
• Death (rare)
Longer-term risks and complications of weight-loss surgery may vary and depends on the type of surgery. It includes:
• Bowel obstruction
• Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
• Dumping syndrome, which leads to diarrhea, flushing, lightheadedness, nausea or vomiting
• Acid reflux
• The need for a second, or revision, surgery or procedure
• Death (rare)
Facial plastic surgery is a surgical operation done to reshape structures in the head and neck like the nose, ears, chin, cheekbones, and neckline. It is performed to reconstruct the face after a disease, injury, or birth defect or to change the signs of aging, remove contour irregularities or deformities, or improve the features of the facial appearance, to make it look more young, natural & more in proportion with one another.
It is also performed to improve specific congenital facial abnormalities such as a birthmark, cleft lip, or other birth defects. Many conditions, such as sun damage, the effects of aging, or previous facial trauma, are also resolved through its procedures performed by a skilled surgeon.
ENT (ear, nose, and throat) doctors/otolaryngologists are trained surgeons to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions that require plastic surgery for the whole face, nose, lips, ears, and neck.
Facial Plastic Surgery Types:
Facial plastic surgery is included in otolaryngology (the study of Ear, Nose & throat) that is divided into two types:
1. Reconstructive plastic surgery- It is performed for patients who have conditions present from birth, like birthmarks on the face, protruding ears, cleft lip and palate, and a crooked smile affecting their normal function. It is also selected for conditions arising from accidents, burns, trauma, or previous surgery. Besides, some reconstructive procedures are done to treat existing diseases like skin cancer.
2. Cosmetic facial plastic surgery- It is surgery performed to improve the visual appearance of the facial structures and features. It involves procedures like facelifts, eye lifts, rhinoplasty, chin and cheek implants, liposuction, and methods to remove facial wrinkles.
Surgical Facial Plastic Treatments-
1. Rhinoplasty/Septoplasty/ nose surgery—in this procedure, internal and external structures of the nose i.e., cartilage and bone, are reconstructed and reshaped to improve the appearance and function of the nose. It is done for both functional (correction of a deviated septum) and cosmetic purposes.
2. Blepharoplasty or eyelid Surgery—it involves surgery of the upper or lower eyelids to correct the conditions like drooping eyelids, impaired vision, and enhance the appearance of the eyes.
3. Browlift — It is the surgery to improve wrinkles and deep lines in the forehead and droopy or furrowed eyebrows.
4. Rhytidectomy —Surgery of the skin on the face and neck is performed to tighten the skin and remove excess wrinkles.
5. Liposuction—It is done to remove excess fat under the chin or in the neck
6. Facial Implants—it is used to make specific structures of the face (cheek, lips, chin) more attractive, prominent, and well defined.
7. Otoplasty or ear surgery- It is performed to reshape the cartilage of the protruding ears.
Recovery and Expectations:
Most of the facial surgery will not require an extended stay in the hospital. It depends on the extent of the operation and procedures performed on an outpatient basis. Some procedures may need a hospital stay overnight, or it may extend to a day or two. Before discharge, the surgeon will instruct the patient any special care required for easy recovery at home. Most patients may resume work in one to two weeks after their surgery, probably when swelling and bruising subside, and there is an improvement in their appearance.
Risks or Side Effects:
Facial surgery has risks of nausea, numbness, infection, blood clots, bleeding, and adverse reactions to the anesthesia.
Stem cell therapy is a therapy that regenerates new cells from the specialized cells, called stem cells, for specific functions. These cells can replace damaged or defective cells in the body. This therapy is considered as a miracle cure for most of the diseases ranging from wrinkles to spinal repair. It is also called regenerative medicine that boosts the repair of nonfunctional or injured or diseased tissues with the help of stem cells or their derivatives. It has excellent future therapeutic potential that needs to be researched more.
In this therapy, stem cells are grown in the laboratory and implanted into specific types of cells like heart muscle cells, bone cells, blood cells, or nerve cells of the patient. The stem cells then enhance the repair of the damaged or defective cells in the injected part. For instance, if it is inserted into the heart muscle, it can repair the defective muscle cells in the heart. This therapy is successfully utilized to perform bone marrow transplants in current medical practice. It is the most widely practiced stem cell therapy nowadays.
What are Stem cells?
Stem cells are the raw cells in a human body specialized in building any tissue. Owing to various researches, these cells are known to enhance tissue regeneration and repair.
Stem cells have two specific properties-
Stem cells are derived from
In recent research studies, genetic programming is used to produce healthy adult cells from stem cells successfully. However, several scientific experiments are still required to discover their therapeutic values for the treatment of various diseases.
Stem cell therapy is an advanced and widely used therapy used for regeneration and repair of the diseased and defective cells in the body. It possesses the potential to treat degenerative diseases, cancer, blood-related disorders, and many more. Currently, bone marrow transplantation is the most effective treatment conducted with the aid of stem cell transplant. However, conclusive research that can confirm the benefits and efficacy of this therapy is yet to come.
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